Анашева Д.К., Искакова А.О. ЕНУ г.Астана, Казахстан
Мақалада аударма ісіндегі эквивалентілік мәселесі стилистикалық тұрғыда таданып таразыланады. Авторлар эквивалентілікті стилистикалық талдаусыз аудармада қарастыруға болмайды деген тұжырымдама жасайды.
The problem of translation equivalence is closely connected with the stylistic aspect of translation – one cannot reach the required level of equivalence if the stylistic peculiarities of the source text are neglected. Full translation adequacy includes as an obligatory component the adequacy of style, i.e. the right choice of stylistic means and devices of the target language to substitute for those observed in the source text. This means that in the translation one is to find proper stylistic variations of the original meaning rather than only the meaning itself. The expression of stylistic peculiarities of the source text in the translation is necessary to convey fully the communication intent of the source text. Special language media securing the desirable communication of the text are called stylistic devices and expressive means.
First of all, a translator is to distinguish between neutral, bookish and colloquial words and word-combinations, translating them by relevant units of the target language. Usually it is a routine task. It is sometimes hard to determine the correct stylistic variety of a translation equivalent. But, as in almost all instances of translation, the final decision is taken on the basis of context, situation and background information.
For example, it is hard to decide without further information, which of the English words – disease, illness, or sickness –corresponds to the Kazakh words: ауру, сырқат, науқас. However, even such short contexts as “infectious disease” and “social disease” already help to choose the appropriate equivalents and translate the word “disease as “әлеуметтік ауру” This example brings us to a very important conclusion, that style is expressed in a proper combination of words rather than only in the stylistic coloring of the individual words.
Stylistic devices are based on the comparison of primary (dictionary) meaning and that dictated by the contextual environment; on the contradiction between the meaning of the given word and the environment; on the association between words in the minds of the language speakers and on the purposeful deviation from accepted grammatical and phonetic standards.
The following stylistic devices and expressive means are most common and frequently dealt with by the translators of publicistic style texts.
Metaphor is the transference of some quality from one object to another based on resemblance, in other words, on a convert comparison: He is not a man, he is just a machine; What an ass you are - Cен қандай еңбекқор едің. Not only objects can be compared in a metaphor, but also phenomena and actions: Some books are to be tasted, others are swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.
Metonymy denotes as a transference of meaning which is based on contiguity of notions, not on likeness. It may be called “similarity by association”. In metonymy, the name of one object is used instead of another, closely connected with it, which may include:
1. The name of a part instead of the name of a whole as in Washington and London ( = USA and UK) agree on most issues; the word “colors” in the phrase “to defend the colors of the University” denotes the organization itself.
2. The name of a container instead of the contents as in “He drank a whole glass of whisky (= the liquid contained in a glass – стакандағы сұйықтық); The whole town was out in the streets ( = the people of the town - ...)
3. The name of a characteristic feature of an object instead of the object as in “The massacre of the innocents” (= children –балалар; this biblical phrase is related to the killing of Jewish male children by King Herod in Bethlehem).
4. The name of an instrument instead of an action or the doer of an action as in “All they that live by the sword, shall perish by the sword ( = war, fighting – соғыс)
Irony is based on the simultaneous realization of two opposite meanings: the stable, direct meaning of the words and their contextual meaning. Usually the direct meaning in such cases expresses a positive evaluation of the situation, while the context contains the opposite, negative evaluation: e.g. How delightful – to find yourself in a foreign country without a penny in your pocket! Cases of irony do not present a serious problem for translation and the approaches similar to those mentioned above (semantic or pragmatic equivalence) are commonly used. For example, the ironical expression “paper war” may be translated as “қағаз соғыс”
Zeugma is a stylistic device that plays upon two different meanings of the word (the direct and transferred meanings). This comes from the use of a word in the same formal (grammatical) relations, but in different semantic relations with the surrounding words in the phrase or sentence, which is a result of the simultaneous realization of the literal and figurative meanings of a word: e.g. A leopard changes his spots as often as he goes from one spot to another (spot = 1. дақ, қасқа; 2. орын). Here the translator’s task is to try to render this ironical comment either by finding a similar irregularity in the target language or, failing to show a zeugma and irony of the author, stick to the regular target language meaning (i.e. separate the two actions: Ол бір рет суретке түсірді де, кеседен бір жұтым шәй ішті.
Pun, the so-called “play on words”, is considered to be the most arduous for translation. Pun is the realization in one and the same word of two lexical meanings (direct and figurative) simultaneously: e.g. May’s mother always stood on her gentility, and Dot’s mother never stood on anything but her active little feet. A pun can be translated only by a word in the target language with a similar capacity to develop two meanings in a particular context. English is comparatively rich in polysemantic words and homonyms, whereas in Kazakh these word types are rather rare. Consider an example of a pun and its Kazakh translation: What gear were you in at the moment of impact? - Соғысқан сәтте сіз қай жылдамдықта болдыныз; Gucci’s sweets and Reeboks - Соңғы жаналық.
Periphrasis is another device. It denotes the process of renaming – the use of different name instead of the traditionally used one. Its frequent use is characteristic of the publicistic style. A different, more gentle or favorable name may be used for an object or phenomenon so as to avoid undesirable or unpleasant associations. This case of renaming is represented by euphemisms. Thus the verb ‘die” may be replaced by euphemisms like “expire, be no more, join the majority, be done, depart”; “a madhouse” may be called “a lunatic asylum or a mental hospital”; euphemisms for toilet, lavatory are ladies’ (men’s) room, restroom, bathroom. Periphrasis may use a description instead of a person’s name, creating a kind of nickname: Mister Know-all; Miss Today. On the other hand, a proper name may be used instead of a common name: He is the Napoleon of crime (= a genius in crime as great as Napoleon was in other things); You are a real Cicero (= a great orator like Cicero). Some of the periphrasis are borrowed from classical sources (myths and the Bible); others are typically English.
The example from Shakespeare: salad days (= қайтар құрылымы); at one fell swoop (= көзді ашып жұмғанша); sound and fury (= қайғылы жағдай); every inch a king (= шынайы); it’s neither here nor there (= бұл іске қатысы жоқ); cry havoc (= байбалам салу)
Typically English periphrasis are: Lake country (=England); The Lord, Almighty, Goodness, Heavens, the Skies (=God); a shield-bearer (=a soldier); a play of swords (= a battle). As a rule, periphrasis don’t present difficulties for translation, however, their correct translation strongly depends on the situation and appropriate background information.
Special attention is to be paid by a translator to overt and covert quotations. Whereas the former requires only a correct rendering of the source quotation in the target language. Never suggest your own home-made translation for a quotation of a popular author! The latter usually takes the shape of an allusion and the pragmatic equivalence seems the most appropriate for the case. For example: “the Trojan Horse raid” one may translate as «катыгезді шабуыл» (loosing the meaning of the original quotation).
Allegory is a device by which the names of objects or characters of an article are used figuratively, representing some more general things, good or bad qualities. We often find allegory in parables, essays and pamphlets. It is also a typical feature of proverbs containing generalizations (expressing some moral truths): All is not gold that glitters ( = impressive words or people are not always really good. Kazakh translation: жылтырағынның бәрі алтын емес; Every cloud has a silver lining (= even in bad situations there may be positive elements. Kazakh: жаман айтпай жақсы жоқ; Make the hay while the sun shines (= hurry to achieve your aim while there is a suitable situation. Kazakh: темірді қызған кезінде ұр.
As a type of allegory we distinguish Personification, i.e. ascribing human qualities to inanimate objects, phenomena or animals: e.g. Silent, like sorrowing children, the birds have ceased their song ... , lit by pale stars, reigns in stillness (Jerome). In English personification is often represented grammatically by the choice of masculine or feminine pronouns for the names of animals, inanimate objects or forces of nature. The pronoun “he” is used for the Sun, The Wind for the names of animals that act as human beings. The pronoun “she” is used for what is regarded as rather gentle (the Moon, Nature, Silence, Beauty, Hope, Mercy, etc. While translating the cases of personification and traditional use of personal and possessive pronouns, a translator should render the English pronouns in accordance with the norms of the target language (TL).
A translator faces constantly with the necessity to transfer diverse expressive means, used in original text. Its translation requires transformations, which keep and modify starting emotional-aesthetic information.
List of literature:
1. Л.Ф.Дмитриева, С.Е.Кунцевич, Курс перевода – М., 2005.
2. Н.А. Читалина. « Учитесь переводить»-.г. – Москва, 1975 г.
3. А.Чужакин. Мир перевода – М., 2003г.
4. М.Д. Гутнер. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский – М., 1982г.